Parkinson’s disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement and currently has no specific cure, but the right treatment may ease to out. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement according to Mayo Clinic.
Each person with Parkinson’s disease has their own unique set of symptoms. Parkinson’s disease does not affect everyone in the same way. It’s possible that your symptoms don’t appear in the same order as others’. Some people may experience moderate symptoms while others may experience severe symptoms. The rate at which symptoms worsen varies from person to person and is difficult, if not impossible, to anticipate from the onset. The treatment method also differs according to the symptoms of the disease.
In this article, Dr. Mohana Rao will be discussing the treatments available at the best neurosurgery hospital in Guntur. But before going into the treatment part it is crucial to understand the stages of the disease as the treatment also depends upon the progression of the disease.
What are the Stages of Parkinson’s Disease-
The disease progresses from an early stage to a mid-stage to a late-stage to an advanced stage in general. Following are the stages of Parkinson’s disease explained by the best neurosurgeons in India:
Parkinson’s disease symptoms are often moderate, develop slowly, and do not interfere with daily activities. Early symptoms are sometimes difficult to identify, or you may mistake them for natural indicators of aging. You may experience weariness or a general feeling of unease. You might experience a little tremor or have trouble standing.
Some of the subtle indicators are often picked up by a family member or friend before you are aware of them. Body rigidity or lack of typical mobility (no arm swing when walking), slow or small handwriting, lack of expression in your face, or trouble getting out of a chair are all characteristics they may observe.
Symptoms begin to worsen in the middle stage. Both sides of the body may now be affected by tremors, muscle stiffness, and mobility issues. Falls and balance issues are becoming increasingly widespread. You may still be completely autonomous, but daily actions such as bathing and dressing get more difficult to do and take a longer time.
Middle to late stage
Standing and walking become more difficult, and a walker may be required. To remain at home, you may require full-time assistance.
You are now confined to a wheelchair or are bedridden. It’s possible that you’ll have hallucinations or delusions. You now require round-the-clock nursing assistance.
Treatment of Parkinson’s disease –
There is no way to cure Parkinson’s disease with surgery (PD). Surgical procedures, on the other hand, may help certain patients with Parkinson’s disease symptoms. Surgical methods for Parkinson’s disease are usually considered when all other options, such as medications, have been exhausted. Surgery is typically used to address motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease that have already improved with levodopa therapy. Surgical techniques for patients with PD used to be aimed at destroying specific regions of the brain in order to alleviate symptoms. Pallidotomy, thalamotomy, and subthalamotomy are examples of these techniques. These operations, however, come with significant dangers, including the threat of death.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now the most prevalent operation for Parkinson’s disease. DBS is less risky since it disrupts electrical signals in the brain instead of destroying tissue.
Deep brain stimulation is a process in which a device is placed in the person’s brain and electrical pulses are delivered to the brain to reduce motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. The electrical pulses are directed at the parts of the brain that control movement, obstructing faulty signals that cause tremors. The thalamus, subthalamus, and globus pallidus are all possible targets in the brain. 2 DBS is ineffective in treating balance problems, freezing while walking, or non-motor PD symptoms. DBS is not indicated for persons with dementia since it can exacerbate cognition or memory issues.
Pallidotomies are no longer often performed. However, a person with advanced Parkinson’s disease who has acquired severe motor fluctuations like dyskinesia (uncontrolled, irregular movements) as a result of long-term levodopa medication may be a candidate for surgery. Pallidotomy may be used to treat people who have severe or disabling motor symptoms (such as tremor, stiffness, or bradykinesia) that are no longer managed by medication.
The globus pallidus, a region of the brain, is destroyed during a pallidotomy. The globus pallidus is quite active in persons with Parkinson’s disease. The activity in this part of the brain is reduced when a scar is created, which may help with motor symptoms including tremor and rigidity. The globus pallidus is located utilizing brain scans such as magnetic resonance imaging before surgery (MRI).
Thalamotomies are no longer often performed. The operation, on the other hand, may be used to treat severe tremors on one side of the body that are unresponsive to medication.
The thalamus, a region of the brain, is destroyed during a thalamotomy. Tremors may be relieved by damaging the thalamus. The left side of the body is affected by surgery on the right side of the brain, and the right side of the body is affected by surgery on the left side of the body. Thalamotomy is a surgical procedure that is conducted on the side of the brain opposite the person’s motor symptoms. Before surgery, brain scans such as MRI or computed tomography (CT) are utilized to detect the thalamus.
Subthalamotomies are no longer performed on a regular basis. The subthalamic nucleus, a small region of the brain, is destroyed during a subthalamotomy. Tremor, stiffness, and bradykinesia are some of the motor signs of Parkinson’s disease.
A subthalamotomy is usually performed on only one side of the brain. When it is done on both sides of the brain, the risks are considerably raised. Before surgery, brain scans such as MRI or CT are performed to detect the subthalamus.
So, these are types of treatments given to Parkinson’s disease patients. Hope you will share the treatment with your friends and family for creating awareness.
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